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Tiny Tip Tuesday: Buying Organic

 

The Dirty Dozen and Clean Fourteen

The Dirty Dozen and Clean Fourteen

People often lament to me the high cost of organic fruits and vegetables.  I definitely feel their pain.  I know my grocery bill has significantly increased since I began focusing on buying organic.  However, I do feel buying organic is important to decrease our exposure to harmful toxins for ourselves, the environment and the farmers growing our food.  But what if it is just not financially feasible for you to buy everything organic?  Are there some specific areas you should focus on?

When working with clients, I ask them to think about a few different areas when deciding to buy organic.  For products that you or your children consume on a daily basis, buying organic, if at all possible, is definitely advisable.  When my boys were little, they consumed volumes of milk on a daily basis so this was an product I tried to always buy organic (or at least hormone free).  Think carefully about your overall diet and switch those items that make a daily appearance to organic.

Also, items that are higher up on the food chain like meat are important to buy organic.  Livestock that is fed a conventional diet of corn and other grains have greater exposure to the toxic pesticides used on their food.  These pesticides are then concentrated in fat of the meat you eat.  Also, animals allowed to graze on their normal diet of grass have greater amounts of the natural healing omega-3s.  I recognize organic meat can be expensive so I have started making meat more of an accent in my meals instead of the main ingredient.  This approach saves me money and increases my consumption of healthy fruits and vegetables.

Finally, the Environmental Working Group (EWG) puts out a list of the Dirty Dozen and the Clean Fifteen every year.  The Dirty Dozen lists the fruits and vegetable which contained a number of different pesticide residues and showed high concentrations of pesticides relative to other produce items.  Relatively few pesticides were detected on the fruits and vegetables on the Clean Fifteen list, and tests found low total concentrations of pesticides.   If you are rationing your grocery store dollars, focusing on buying the fruits and vegetables from the Dirty Dozen list may be your best bet.  Checkout the info graphic at the beginning of the article for your complete list. (You might notice that my list is only a Clean Fourteen.  The EWG’s list contained sweet corn.  In the last year, GMO corn has begun appearing on our grocery shelves.   I would advise buying organic corn to ensure you are avoiding a GMO product.)

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Roasted Curry Delicata Squash

Yummy roasted delicata squash.

Yummy roasted delicata squash.

The weather in Portland has taken a crazy turn today!  On Sunday, I spent eight hours dodging the sun on the side of a baseball field to stay cool in the 90 plus degree heat.  Today, the weather man predicted a high of 80 degrees but it is wildly windy!  It suddenly feels like fall- leaves are blowing down the street, flags are snapping in the breeze and the air feels crisp.

Even though I love the summer sunshine, I am still excited for the change of seasons.  One of the aspects of fall I love the most is diving into all the fresh fall produce.  Apples, pears and leafy greens are incredibly tasty but my most favorite fall veggie is squash.  I like all kinds of squash but the absolute best in my book is delicata.  It is a perfect size. It doesn’t need to be peeled and it is amazingly tasty!  I was ecstatic when it reappeared on the shelf at my local grocery store.

Sliced delicata squash.

Sliced delicata squash.

Delicata squash is VERY  easy to prepare.  Just slice it, scoop out the seeds, brush it with olive oil, sprinkle a little salt, stick it in the oven and about 40 minutes later, you have a delicious vegetable side.  It is easier to work with than most other squashes because you don’t have to peel it.  Once cooked, the peel is usually soft enough to eat.  (I did find, however, that this time one of my squashes seemed a little dry when I was slicing it and once I cooked it, the peel did not soften up enough to eat.  The other squash seemed more moist and the peel was really tasty once cooked.   For the record, I have cooked a lot of delicata squash and this is the first time I had trouble with the peel not being edible so if anyone has some suggestions, I am all ears!  Happily, the dryer squash still tasty good after I cut off the peel.)

Squash before going into the oven.

Squash before going into the oven. Be sure to scoop out all the seeds before roasting.

I chose curry as the spice for my squash because I was going to be adding it to a curried soup but delicata is so versatile you could use any spice that appeals to your tastes!  I have seen it with lime and chili, sugar and orange juice and cinnamon and ginger.  The possibilities are endless!  Don’t be afraid to use your imagination.

Squash after 40 minutes of roasting.

Squash after 40 minutes of roasting.

Finished squash.

Finished squash.

Roasted Curry Delicata Squash

Ingredients

  • 2 delicata squash
  • 2 tbs of olive oil
  • 1/2 tsp of curry powder (or more to taste)
  • couple of grinds of sea salt, (or more to taste)

Instructions

  1. Preheat oven to 400 degrees.
  2. Wash squash well to remove all dirt.
  3. Mix olive oil, curry powder and salt in a separate bowl.
  4. Slice squash in 1/4 inch thick slices.
  5. Place on a cookie sheet.
  6. Brush with olive oil mixture. Be sure to get sides of the squash rounds.
  7. Place in oven and cook for about 20 minutes.
  8. Remove from oven and flip over each squash piece.
  9. Place back in oven for 20 minutes (or until squash is brown on the edges and feels soft.)
  10. Enjoy!
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5 Tips for A More Sustainable Life

  1. 4643772171_5005cce317Eat Seasonally:  Eating food that is currently in season for your part of the world helps to reduce pollution.  When you live in the Pacific Northwest and buy a nectarine in the middle of January, you can be sure it was not grown locally.  Food that travels a long way  requires more energy and has a greater impact on the environment before it reaches your plate.  Also, because it must travel so far, it is often picked when it is not ripe leading to a less than fresh taste.
  2. Ditch the Plastic Water Bottles:  Bottled water causes a whole host of problems.  Americans consume over 1500 bottles of water every second.  These bottles are clogging our landfills because only a small percentage of them are recycled.  The plastic in the bottles has also been found to leach harmful endocrine disrupting chemicals into the water and bottled water cost significantly more than tap water.  Buy yourself an inexpensive water filter, save significant dollars at the grocery store and avoid exposing yourself to harmful chemicals.
  3. Reduce Your Meat Consumption:  Meat can be an important part of a meal but reducing your overall meat consumption can have a big impact on the environment. It takes roughly twenty-five times more energy to produce one calorie of beef than to produce one calorie of corn for human consumption.  However, you don’t have to give up meat entirely.  Try going meatless just one day a week or even just making meat an accent part of the meal and not the main course.  Every bit of meat consumption reduction makes a positive contribution to the environment.
  4. Grow Your Own Food:  Not everyone has room to plant a giant garden in their backyard but most people have room for a few pots for herbs or tomatoes.  Squeeze in a small container garden wherever you find  a patch of sun.  Food just picked from your plants offers the freshest, most sustainable option in food production.
  5. Cook Your Own Food:  Cooking your own food allows you to have greater control over what is actually in your food and how it is prepared.  With that control, you can be sure your ingredients are produced in a responsible, sustainable manner.  Besides, nothing tastes better than a home cooked meal prepared with love from the ingredients you grew in your own yard.
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Dark Chocolate Oat and Seed Snacks

Chocolaty oaty goodness!

Chocolaty oaty goodness!

When I was a kid, occasionally my mom would make Chocolate Chow Mein Noodle Cookies.  I, of course, thought they were the bomb and gave no thought to all the processed ingredients in the noodles or conventional chocolate chips!  I still often feel a nostalgia for some of the “treats” of my childhood but now I have begun to look for ways to make them healthier.  This recipe came out of that nostalgia.

I knew I wanted to keep the feeling of the noodles covered with chocolate but without the unhealthy fat you get from using a fried noodle.  I decided to use Bob’s Red Mill Organic Oats  to take the place of the noodles.  Also,  I wanted to incorporate more protein and healthy omega-3′s in this snack so I added Trader Joe’s Organic Tricolor Quinoa,  Navitas Naturals Organic Raw Chia Seeds,  and  Manitoba Harvest Hemp Hearts.  I added cinnamon for its blood sugar balancing and anti-inflammatory properties and cardamom to aid in digestion.  Finally, instead of using regular milk chocolate, I  switched to Newman’s Own Organic Premium Chocolate Bar, 70% for all the heart healthy flavonoids that come with dark chocolate.  These were VERY  easy to whip up and don’t require any baking!

Everything all mixed up and ready to go in the muffin tins.

Everything all mixed up and ready to go in the muffin tins.

I made sure to press hard on the oat mixture as I added it to each tin so all the ingredients would be compressed and hold together better.

Chocolate oat mixture before it hits the fridge.

Chocolate oat mixture before it hits the fridge.

I have to admit, I wasn’t sure how these would end up.  I worried the oats wouldn’t offer the same feel as the fried noodles.  However, between the oats and the seeds you still got the feel of crunchy, chocolaty goodness!  These turned out super yummy!  Unfortunately, this recipe only produced 7 treats so the next time I make them, I am going to be sure to double the recipe!  (These are best stored in the fridge because the chocolate tends to melt quickly.)

Treats all ready to eat.

Treats all ready to eat.

Dark Chocolate Oat and Seed Snacks

Ingredients

  • 1 1/2 cup of oats
  • 2 tbs of quinoa, toasted
  • 1 tbs of chia seeds
  • 1/4 cup of hemp seeds
  • 1/4 cup of dried cherries
  • 1/3 cup of coconut oil
  • 2 tbs of cocoa powder
  • 4 squares of dark chocolate
  • 2 tsp of cinnamon
  • 1 tsp of cardamon
  • a dash of salt, to taste
  • 1-2 tsp of maple syrup, use to taste

Instructions

  1. Toast quinoa in a dry pan.
  2. Shake pan often to keep from sticking and/or burning.
  3. Remove from fire when quinoa is lightly toasted.
  4. Put chocolate, coconut oil and cocoa powder in double boiler and melt over light heat.
  5. Once melted, stir in the cinnamon, salt, maple syrup and cardamon.
  6. Taste to see if sweet enough for your taste. If not, add more maple syrup.
  7. Once combined, stir in the oats, quinoa, chia seeds, hemp seeds and dried cherries.
  8. Stir until all the dried ingredients are covered with chocolate.
  9. Spoon "dough" into lined muffin cups.
  10. Place in fridge to set.
  11. These will keep best in the fridge.
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Tiny Tip Tuesday: Sugar Reset

Added sugar.

Added sugar.

With all the recent research being released about the detrimental effects of sugar on the body, many people are looking to reduce their sugar consumption.  Excessive sugar consumption has been shown to lead to insulin resistance, increased stomach fat, increased inflammation in the body and a suppressed immune system.  Unfortunately, for people eating a Standard American Diet which includes lots of processed food, sugar is impossible to avoid.  It is added in the places you would expect like cookies, candy and pastries but also has a big presence in items like ketchup, yogurt, breads, pasta sauces, cured meats and chicken nuggets.  It is ubiquitous in the American food system.  However, there are some steps you can focus on to help you successfully avoid added sugar.

  1. Focus on a whole foods diet.  The more you eat foods which are in their natural state like apples, broccoli, whole grains and leafy greens, the easier it will be to avoid added sugar.  Steer clear of food in a package.  Sugar is often added to packaged food to improve it’s flavor.  If you experience a sugar craving, look for a whole foods option to meet that need.  Fresh fruit make an amazing nutrient dense snack!
  2. Read labels.  If you do buy food in a package, read the label.  If sugar or one of its forms is listed in the first 3 ingredients, it is probably an item you want to avoid.  High-fructose corn syrup, brown rice syrup, agave, corn sweetener, demerara, barley malt, evaporated cane juice, beet sugar, evaporated cane juice solids, fruit-juice concentrates, dextrose, fructose and lactose are just a few of the many names for sugar.
  3. Set a realistic time frame for avoiding sugar.  Humans are hard wired to like sugar.  Our typical first food, breast milk, gets 40% of it’s calories from lactose, a disaccharide sugar.  This sugar serves an important purpose for babies, helping to colonize their guts with healthy bacteria.    Given our predisposition to crave sugar, it may be hard to banish sugar indefinitely from your diet.  Think realistically about how long you think YOU  can avoid sugar.  Even if you start with eliminating it for only one day that reset will get you thinking about the places sugar hides in your life.  Usually if you can avoid sugar for at least three days, your body will begin to crave it less and your taste buds will begin to reset to hunger for less sugar.  Set a realistic goal for yourself so you can experience success.  As you get more confident in your sugar-free life, you can always increase the length of your goal.

Photo by Logan Brumm on flickr.

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Part III of Introducing Solids to Babies: What to Feed Your Infant

Baby eating plums.

Baby eating plums.

 

Now that you have determined your baby is ready for solids and you have decided how you want to feed your child, the all important question of what to feed them becomes relevant.

In the recent past, iron fortified rice cereal was often the recommended first food for babies.  This recommendation has started to come under question. Rice and other cereals are a heavily processed food with most of the nutrients stripped out.  Rice cereal, in particular, has recently been called into question due to the presence of arsenic in some rice (AAP, 2003).  There is also some question about a baby’s ability to digest grains due to a lack of pancreatic amylase, the enzyme needed to breakdown carbohydrates.  A baby doesn’t have full pancreatic amylase production until the age of 28 months (Dessinger, 2011).  However, breast milk is a rich source of alpha amylase, offering breastfed babies added digestive help (Lindberg, 1982).  This amylase is unique because it has a broad range for pH tolerances.  This broad range helps the amylase survive the low pH of the stomach and helps digest carbohydrates in the small intestine. Babies also have two other enzymes in their small intestines, sucrase-isomaltase and glucoamylase, which aid in the digestion of carbohydrates (Harrison, 2012).

One more factor to consider in the introduction of grains is the timing of adding them to your baby’s diet.  In 2012, Norris et al conducted a study looking at the relationship between the time of first gluten exposure to the development of celiac disease.  They found that babies fed barley, rye or wheat cereal in the first three months of life had a 5 fold increase in the development of celiac disease over children whose first exposure was between 4-6 months of age.  Children who were not exposed to gluten until the seventh month, had a marginally higher rate of celiac then those children exposed between four and six months.  A similar study looked at time of first wheat exposure and the development of a wheat allergy.  Pool et al  (2006) found similar results about the timing of first exposure.  Both of these studies point to a sweet spot of four to six months of age for first time gluten exposure to decrease the risk of celiac disease or wheat allergy.

Adding grains to your infant’s diet will need to be a personal choice.  If you do decide to introduce them at this time, do not make them the main component of your child’s meals. Vegetables, meat and fruits should be the main course with cereal as a small addition.  Remember an infant’s stomach is only as big as his/her fist.  Adjust your portion size accordingly.   Avoid processed baby cereal.  You can make your own cereal gruel with properly prepared, soaked and sprouted grains such as oats, spelt, rye or barley (Fallon, 2013).  Sally Fallon is an excellent resource for properly preparing grains.

Good first foods for babies include avocado, green beans, squash, egg yolks, carrots, pumpkin, banana, bone broth, sweet potato, shaved organic liver, and pureed meats.  Small amounts of unsweetened goat or sheep’s milk yogurt and fish eggs can also be good additions to an infant’s diet.  If at all possible these foods should be organic and/or grass fed.  Fruits and vegetables should be soft cooked and consist of only one ingredient.   Introduce only one new food every few days so if your child has an allergic reaction you can pinpoint the culprit (Sears, 2013).  If after a couple of days of eating a new food you see no reaction, then you can add another new food.  Signs of an allergic reaction include:

  • Hives or welts
  • Flushed skin or hives
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Swollen tongue, face or cheeks
  • Diarrhea and/or vomiting
  • Loss of consciousness
  • Coughing or wheezing

Allergic reactions can escalate quickly.  If your child is having difficulty breathing, having severe diarrhea and/or vomiting or is experiencing swelling of the face or tongue, call 911 immediately.

Before sitting down to a meal of solid foods, allow your infant to breast-feed or bottle feed first so they are not starving when they sit down and become frustrated with getting the food to their mouths.  As your child becomes more adept at eating solids, you can continue to introduce new tastes, textures and smells. The goal is to get your child to eat the same food you are eating.   If your child refuses a food at first, reintroduce it at a later date.  It often takes a baby multiple exposures to a particular food or texture before he/she likes it (Satter, 2000). Now is not the time to restrict healthy fat.  Fat from fish, avocados, fish oil, breast milk and other healthy sources are necessary for brain development and vitamin absorption (Sears, 2013).

Foods to Avoid

  • Hot dogs, nuts, hard candies and other choking hazards.
  • Foods with added sugar.
  • Cow’s dairy before 1 year of age.  Sheep or goat’s milk unsweetened, cultured (like yogurt or kefir) dairy can be okay in moderation.
  • Honey before 1 year of age.
  • Common allergens such as nuts, wheat, citrus, corn and soy.
  • Peanuts, egg whites and shellfish are also common allergens so care should be exercised in their introduction.
  • Spinach and strawberries have been known to cause reactions in some infants.
  • Care should be used when introducing fish due to the concern with contamination from mercury.  White, small, middle swimming fish should be introduced first.

(For references see first article in the series.)

Photo by Sami Keinanen on Flickr under the Creative Commons license.

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Tiny Tip Tuesday: Brush Your Teeth

 

Brush Your Teeth!

Brush Your Teeth!

Recent research has demonstrated a possible link between periodontal disease and  heart disease.  In a new study in which researchers infected mice with four different types of bacteria associated with gum disease, the mice had increased levels of inflammation and cholesterol.  Other research is starting to point to a possible connection between gum disease and Type 2 diabetes, memory loss and even cancer.  Periodontal disease is an inflammatory disease which can lead to jawbone erosion if left untreated.  This inflammation leads to pockets forming between the gums and teeth which can trap food.  The space where the tooth meets the gum is the richest area in the mouth for bacteria.  All of these factors combine to make the mouth an area ripe for producing inflammation.  Regularly brushing and flossing your teeth helps sweep away these bacteria and can decrease inflammation.  So pullout your tooth brush and floss!  Less inflammation in the mouth means less inflammation throughout the body.

Photo by Aaron McIntyre and found on flickr under Creative Commons license. Text added by me.

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Part II of Introducing Solids to Babies: Feeding Philosophies

Baby loving his meal.

Baby loving his meal.

Now that you have determined your child is developmentally ready to start solids, how do you actually introduce them?   Currently, there are two main philosophies around introducing solids to infants.  The first approach is the more traditional approach in which a parent spoon-feeds his or her infant pureed baby food.  This approach has some advantages in that it is quicker, less messy and offers the parent more control over how much and what the baby actually eats.  However, a new approach is quickly becoming popular.

Baby Led Weaning (BLW) is an approach to feeding infants, which allows the baby to be in control of feeding themselves.  You offer your baby age appropriate foods that are soft-cooked and then cut or mashed into small manageable pieces. You choose what type of food to offer your baby and your baby chooses which ones to eat.  One of the main tenets of BLW is that your baby should be in control of what he is eating.  You should never actually feed him by putting food into his mouth. You can fill his tray with soft cooked broccoli spears, mashed banana pieces or a spoon loaded with cereal but he gets to navigate it to his mouth.   However, you do not simply load his tray and walk away.  Your baby must be supervised at all times.  If at all possible, have your baby join you at mealtime in an upright position either on your lap or in a high chair.    You can expect your baby, as well as the floor, to get VERY messy.  Many BLW parents advised putting a plastic shower curtain on the floor and letting your infant eat in only a diaper (Rapley, 2008).  The benefit of the BLW approach is your baby learns control and mastery over feeding himself.  He can choose to eat to satiety and learns it is okay to listen to his body about when to stop eating.  These opportunities can set up good life long habits around food for your child.

Think carefully about which approach you feel will work best for your family and your family’s temperament.  If you are a family who values control and cleanliness, then Baby Led Weaning may not be the best approach for you.  Once you decide which approach to feeding feels right for you and your baby, there are a wide variety of choices for first foods.

Photo by LB1860 on flickr under the Creative Commons license.

Article shared with Homespun Oasis and The Nourishing Gourmet.

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Tiny Tip Tuesday: Eat Eggs

Super yummy, beautiful eggs.

Super yummy, beautiful eggs.

Unfortunately, over the years, eggs have been a much maligned food.  Due to their yolk’s high cholesterol level, doctors and other health professionals have advocated limiting their consumption, particularly for people with high cholesterol.  These recommendations are unfortunate because eggs offer many health benefits and their impact on cholesterol is not clear cut.  Eggs are a significant source of Vitamin A, Selenium, Folate, B vitamins and phosphorous.  Even though  their yolks contain 212 mgs of the 300 daily recommended mgs of cholesterol, over 70% of people show no cholesterol response to egg consumption and the other 30% of people (called hyper responders) showed a minimal increase in LDL and total cholesterol.   These studies show, however, that eggs change the LDL particles from the small, dense particles associated with heart disease to large LDL molecules.  People with predominately large LDL particles have a lower risk of heart disease.  In fact, some studies have actually shown egg consumption can increase HDL (the “good” cholesterol) in some people.  Egg yolks are also an excellent source of complete protein (6 grams of protein per large egg and they contain all of the essential amino acids) and they contain 100 mgs of choline, an incredibly important nutrient used to build cell membranes and by the body to produce the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine.  Studies have also shown eating omega-3 enriched eggs can reduce triglycerides by 16-18%.  Even though it was hard for me to let go of all the “knowledge” I had about limiting eggs due to their cholesterol count, once I started really examining the studies,  eggs gained a regular place in my family’s breakfast rotation.  You can’t beat their nutrient density compared to their cost!!  If you are interested in adding eggs to your diet but have a history of high cholesterol, talk to your health care provider about a recommendation for a healthy number of eggs to include in your diet.

Photo found on flicker under Creative Commons license.  See more beautiful photos by Woodley Wonder Works here.

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Strawberry Rhubarb Crumble, GF, Vegan

 

Strawberry Rhubarb Crisp with vanilla ice cream.

Strawberry Rhubarb Crisp with vanilla ice cream.

This weekend I went to visit my in-laws near Bainbridge Island, Washington.  Bainbridge has an amazing little farmer’s market with talented artisans and beautiful booths filled with produce.  When I was there on Saturday, one of the booths was featuring rhubarb and had a recipe for a flourless Strawberry Rhubarb Crumble.  Even though I had never cooked rhubarb before and had only eaten it a few times, once I sampled the crisp, I was hooked.  My son, mother-in-law and I instantly decided we needed to recreate the crisp for dessert that night.

Beautiful Rhubarb at the farmer's market.

Beautiful Rhubarb at the farmer’s market.

I loved this recipe because it did not include any gluten or dairy and is pretty light on sugar.  I also liked it because it included chia seeds for added omega-3′s. The chia seeds acted as a nutty, crunchy binder in both the filling and the crumble.  You can buy Chia Seeds here)  The almond meal used in place of flour offered a tasty, nutty  flavor I loved.  Almonds are high in fiber, Vitamin E, potassium and magnesium.  (You can buy Bob’s Red Mill Flour Almond Meal here.)

The strawberries offered a potent dose of Vitamin C and other antioxidants and the rhubarb is also high in fiber, Vitamin C and provides a major dose of Vitamin K, which supports healthy bone growth and can limit neuronal damage in the brain.  The oats contributed an extra boost of fiber, manganese and a surprising amount of protein.  (You can buy Bob’s Red Mill Oats Rolled Regular here.)

There are so many beneficial ingredients in this crumble that I think you could serve it for breakfast and feel like you have started your day off on the right nutritional foot!  I love when a dessert is good and good for you!!

Filling waiting for the crumble topping.

Filling waiting for the crumble topping.

I think I mentioned in a previous post how much my father-in-law loves fruit desserts so he was thrilled when my son pulled this one out of the oven.

Finished crumble ready for dessert.

Finished crumble ready for dessert.

Some of us added ice cream to our crumble but if you are dairy free, it was just as good without it.

Crumble with ice cream.

Crumble with ice cream.

Strawberry Rhubarb Crumble, GF, Vegan

Ingredients

  • For Base
  • 2 lbs of strawberries, chopped
  • 1 cup of rhubarb
  • 1/2 lemon, juiced
  • 1 tsp of cinnamon
  • 2 tbsp chia seeds
  • 3 tbs of brown sugar
  • For topping
  • 1 cup of almond flour
  • 1 tsp cinnamon
  • 1/2 cup rolled oats
  • 3 tbs brown sugar
  • 1 tsp baking powder
  • 1/8 tsp of salt
  • 2 tbs chia seeds
  • 4 tbs of coconut oil, softened
  • 1/2 cup almonds, chopped

Instructions

  1. Preheat oven to 375 degrees.
  2. In medium bowl, combine base ingredients. Mix well and then set aside while you prepare the crust.
  3. In medium bowl, mix almond crumble topping ingredients except coconut oil and crushed almonds.
  4. Warm up the coconut oil by putting jar in warm water.
  5. Add coconut oil and chopped almonds in the bowl with the crumble topping. Mix until a course crumb is formed.
  6. Pour the base into a 8 X 11 baking dish. Top with crumble topping and bake until bubbling and almonds are roasted.
  7. Bake about 30-40 minutes depending on your oven.
  8. Wait 15 minutes before serving.
  9. Serve warm or room temperature and include ice cream topping if desired.
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